Luther and the Protestant Reformation: Crash Course World History #218

Luther and the Protestant Reformation: Crash Course World History #218


Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course
World History and today we’re going to talk about the Protestant Reformation. Mr Green, Mr. Green, this is irrelevant for me; I’m an atheist. Yeah I know Me From the Past, because I’m you. Although actually you are now Episcopalian, a Protestant
church started because a King wanted to get a divorce.
But anyway let me submit that religious history is important regardless of your personal religious
beliefs, because it helps us to understand the lenses through which people have viewed
their lives and communities, and given that, the Protestant Reformation is what proper
historians refer to as A Big-Ass Deal — which I will remind you is not cursing if you are
referring to donkeys. So before the Reformation, pretty much all
Christians in Europe were Roman Catholic. Yes, there were other types of Christians
in Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, but Roman Catholicism was the dominant form of Christianity
and had been since like the 4th century. The Protestant Reformation broke so-called
“western Christendom” in two—then three, then four, –until finally there were uncountable
denominations of Christianity–not just Lutherans but Apostolic Lutherans and Reformed Lutherans
and Free Lutherans and Lutherans for Just Going Back to Being Catholic Because This
Has Become So Complicated. This was hugely important–it changed people’s
way of looking at themselves and the world, it led to wider European literacy, and eventually
forced governments to grant religious freedoms, while also at the same time maybe being more
of a political revolution than a religious one. So, during the European Middle Ages, the Catholic Church really dominated European civilization.
It’s almost impossible to imagine the scope of the Church’s power in the Middle Ages,
but let’s try. First off, the Catholic Church was the caretaker
of the most important thing that Christians had, their souls, which, unlike our temporal
bodies, were eternal. And then there was the parish priest, who
played a pivotal role throughout every person’s life, baptizing them, marrying them, hearing
their confessions, providing last rites. The church also provided all of the social services:
It distributed alms to the poor, and ran orphanages, and provided what education was available.
And most Europeans would in their lives meet exactly one person who could read the Bible,
which was only available in Latin – their parish priest.
And, the church owned over 1/3 of all the land in Europe, which helped make it the most
powerful economic and political force on the continent. And the Pope claimed authority
over all the kings of Europe, as the successor to the Roman Emperor.
So this was a very powerful institution, and it was undone by one chronically constipated
monk. Here at Crash Course, we don’t like to get
too into like, Great Man History, but the Reformation really was initiated and shaped
by one man: Martin Luther. No, Stan, the Martin Luther he was named for. No, Stan! The Martin
Luther that HE was named for. Yes. Okay, let’s go to the Thought Bubble:
Luther studied law, and like most law students, he hated it. Then one day a sudden storm blew
up, lightning struck him to the ground, and in a panic, he cried, “Help me, Saint Anne!
I’ll become a monk!” He survived and in the next two weeks, he withdrew from university,
entered an Augustinian monastery, took his vows, and sent a message to inform his family,
who I’m sure were delighted to have spent all that money on education because monking
is so lucrative. In 1505, Luther was sent to Rome on a diplomatic
mission, and he ignored all the awesome art and focused instead on Rome’s corruption—with
prostitutes openly soliciting on the filthy streets, priests who made light of their duties,
hurrying through mass so fast that it seemed to mean nothing, and openly deriding Church
doctrine. Luther was obsessed with his own sinfulness
and he kept confessing, incessantly. And finally his confessor and teachers sent him to the
University of Wittenberg, because you know, they were a little bit annoyed with him, and
they figured he’d be good at teaching scripture. These days of course, incessant confessors
are put on the real housewives of New Jersey, but back then, you sent them to the University
of Wittenberg. Anyway, Luther finally found his answer in
St. Paul’s epistles, specifically in one line that said, “The just shall live by
faith” (Bainton 65). In other words, salvation comes through faith, not good works—not
through prayer, or fasting, or vigils, or pilgrimages, or relics, giving to the poor, or the sacraments,
or any action that a person can take. We can’t ever be good enough, through our actions,
to merit salvation. We can only have faith. In Latin, sola fide, only faith.
Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, Martin Luther’s new interpretation of
“sola fide” grew into a full-scale conflict with the Catholic Church when a friar named
John Tetzel came to Wittenberg, selling indulgences. An indulgence was a donation to the church
that came with a promise from the pope to reduce a sinner’s time in purgatory. Like,
to quote from an indulgence that Friar Tetzel sold, “[I] replace thee in the state of innocence and
purity in which thou wert at the hour of thy baptism.” Luther felt like that that wasn’t the sort of thing that, you know, should be for sale. The price of this whole-life complete-forgiveness-of-any-horrible-sin certificate, by the way, was three marks,
probably about half a year’s wages for a laborer.
So, Luther didn’t like seeing his parishioners handing over money they didn’t have for
a scrap of paper that he believed to be meaningless, so in response, he wrote 95 Theses against
indulgences, and then dramatically nailed them to the Church door, for all to see on
October 31, 1517—or else he mailed them to the archbishop, or possibly both. We don’t
actually know. This led to a series of debates with other
men of the cloth, during which Luther’s positions became increasingly radical. Starting
from the statement that Christians were saved only through faith and the grace of God, for instance,
Luther then upped the ante, saying that the Church’s rituals didn’t have the power to save souls.
And then he argued that far from being infallible, the church, and the pope made errors all the
time. That was a pretty bold thing to say, and then
it got even more dramatic when Luther ultimately denied that the church and the officers of
it had any spiritual powers. He said that the priesthood was a human invention;
and that individual Christians didn’t even need priests to receive the grace of God.
Instead, Luther described a “priesthood of all believers.”
So this had gone from a call for reforming indulgences to, to a revolution. So in
1521, Luther was called to defend his ideas before the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V,
at the Imperial Diet of Worms. Or in German, Worms.
Also, let me say retroactively, now that everyone has commented on my poor German pronunciation,
Wittenberg. Emperor Charles famously said, “A single
friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong.”
To which Luther was like, “stop flapping that hideous Hapsburg jaw of yours.”
But there was something to what Charles was saying, right? Because plenty of radical friars
had criticized the church’s abuses and hypocrisies over the years; why would Luther prove influential?
Well, one reason was the printing press. Now, most people in Europe at the time couldn’t
read, but a lot of people could, including, of course a lot of priests. And over two thousand
editions of Luther’s writings appeared between 1517 and 1526.
And his ideas also appeared in pamphlets, and posters, and cartoons that were seen and
read aloud, reaching millions of readers and listeners,
In short, Luther’s ideas were all over, like, the Tumblr of the day, which was a town
crier and broadsides nailed to doors. And it caused quite a stir, especially the part
about, like, the Pope being the Anti-Christ sent by the devil. Like I said, it got pretty
radical. But maybe the most revolutionary of Luther’s
publications was his new translation of the Bible into German.
For the first time ever, non-priests could read the Bible for themselves, because Luther
used the German that people actually spoke, instead of Latin, and his work quickly caught
on among common people. Hundreds of thousands of copies of Luther’s
Bible were printed; people carried it in their pockets and memorized it. Now everyone could
quote scripture and discuss its meaning. Now, Luther’s theory was that if everyone
just returned directly to the scriptures, they would see the one single truth, and the
Church would be restored to its original simplicity. Yeah, no. I have a message to the restorers
of history. There is no original simplicity! The thing is, once you start making scripture
accessible to everyone and tell them that their opinions are just as good as those of
the clergy, what happens is that people start, you know, having different interpretations
of what religious truth is. So Luther’s protest started creating spinoffs:
the Zwinglians, and the Calvinists, and the Anabaptists…and then the spinoffs had their
own spinoffs. It’s like how first there was Iron Man, and
then there was the Avengers, and then you know, like an Avengers TV show. Pretty soon
we’re gonna have Ant Man get his own movie. The Protestant Reformation is just basically
the same thing as the Marvel Comic Universe, but no Thor! Because he’s pagan.
Anyway, many of these new denominations will be familiar to you: the Anglicans and Puritans,
the Quakers, the Presbyterians, the Methodists, the Baptists.
Each of these new Protestant churches thought that it knew the one true way to worship God—and
that, you know, everyone else was going to hell, and this led to some fighting.
And also some disemboweling. Oh, it’s time for the open letter.
But first, let’s see what’s in the globe today. Oh, that’s nice, I thought it would
be disemboweled people, but it’s Anabaptists not baptizing their infants.
Hi there. So, you don’t believe in infant baptism. You believe that like, people should
come of age; that they can make their own decision about salvation.
Other people: Catholics, many protestants, believe that it’s OK to baptize infants,
or even that it’s good. I don’t feel like this disagreement should
lead to disembowelment, and yet it did. The fascinating thing to me, Anabaptists, is that
you never had a state, you never had, like, widespread political say in any community.
And yet, your brand of evangelical Christianity managed to become incredibly important in
world history. In short, the bad news is that many of you
are going to be executed. The good news is that your message will prove surprisingly
resilient Stan, who did I even make that open letter
for? The Anabaptists are Amish now. They’re not watching this. I guess some of them are
Mennonites. I made it for you Mennonites! OK, So with all these new denominations, there
were years of religious mayhem. Clergy preached radical new ideas, and then
other people interpreted them in even more radical ways. People, especially young people,
smashed up churches because the bible says no graven images.
What started as a doctrinal dispute turned into a social revolt, and in 1525, German
peasants took up Luther’s ideas to give voice to longstanding grievances against landlords
and clergymen. In their most famous revolutionary proclamation,
the Twelve Articles, the peasants echoed Luther’s language, proclaiming that serfdom was invented
by men, with no basis in scripture. The peasants rebelled, refused to pay taxes,
pillaged Church lands, and raised an army estimated at 300,000 people.
And Luther was like YES FREE SOULS SOVEREIGN AT LAST. No, just kidding, he wasn’t.
Luther chose the elite, and said that “Christian liberty” was a spiritual concept, not meant
to promote equality or freedom in like, the physical world. He then urged
the faithful to “smite, slay and stab” rebels and kill them like mad dogs.
He also gave up his idea that congregations should elect their own ministers and argued
that kings and princes were put in place by God as caretakers of the church. And that
turned out to be the winning side. For a few hundred years, anyway. The German
Peasants’ Revolt, the biggest revolutionary uprising in Europe before the French Revolution,
was suppressed with crushing brutality; an estimated 100,000 people were killed.
So Luther chose the princes, in the name of stability and success, but why would princes
choose Lutheranism, when the Holy Roman Emperor had forbidden it?
Let’s look at one example: the first actual ruler who broke with the Pope: the heroic,
frequently divorced, founder of Anglicanism, King Henry VIII of England… What’s that
Stan? Apparently it was not King Henry VIII. It was Grand Master Albert of the Teutonic
Order of monks, crusaders who’d come to rule parts of what is now Poland.
So many Teutonic knights individually left the order for Lutheranism because they liked
the theology. Albert started by reading Lutheran tracts and he became a fan, allowing Lutheran
preachers into his cities, and even traveliing to meet with Luther in person.
On Luther’s advice, Grand Master Albert dissolved the Teutonic State, and founded
instead the Dougy of Prussia. I guess that was a country where they all danced the Dougie?
Oh, it’s the Douchey of Prussia. Stan informs me that it is neither the Dougy
nor the Douchey of Prussia, but the Duchy of Prussia. Anyway, Albert established a Lutheran
Church there—the first Lutheran state Church. But it’s unlikely that Albert was really
motivated by a desire to purge the church of corruption. I mean, at the time of his
decision, the Grand Master had been in trouble; he was losing a territorial battles against
the rest of Poland and he was running out of money.
By breaking with the Church, Albert was able to seize the Church assets within his territory
which bolstered his military might and then allowed him to settle the war favorably.
In another major plus, now that he was a Duke instead of a Grand Master monk, he could
get married and produce heirs… Which he did, founding the House of Hohenzollern,
destined to unify and rule the German Empire a few centuries later.
And this points to a huge incentive for princes and kings to break with the Pope.
What if instead of the Church having all of that money and power, I could have it?
Those are like the two favorite things of monarchs, and protestantism allowed them to
confiscate Church land and other wealth, collect Church taxes, and use Church land for themselves.
Why is the Queen the largest landowner in England? Because the Protestant reformation.
That said, we shouldn’t minimize the extent to which the reformation really was about
belief. I mean, Catholics truly believed that Protestants were heretics, and Protestants
truly believed that the Pope and his hierarchy were impostors.
If it were only about land and influence, how could we explain the case of Saxon elector
John Frederick, for instance? When defeated and imprisoned by his Catholic
emperor, Frederick was given the choice between his lands and his faith. He chose his faith.
And then there were the Catholics like Sir Thomas More, who would not sanction Henry
VIII’s break with the Pope, and chose execution over sacrilege.
So in the end the Reformation was both a religious movement AND a political one.
Now, many argue that the Reformation eventually led to more religious toleration in Europe,
because people just had to learn to live with each other, once they had a bunch of wars
and figured out that there were going to be both Catholics and Protestants moving forward.
There were other effects of the Protestant revolution. Max Weber famously called it the
foundation of European capitalism. But for me the most crucial aspect of the
Protestant Reformation is contained inside the words: Protest and Reform.
These have become two of the central political ideas in recent centuries, and while religion
has justifiably been blamed for much violence and intolerance, we should also remember that
many of the leaders of the American civil rights movement, for instance, were Protestant
clergy. And they saw a history of protest that could fuel real and lasting reform, that included
people like Gandhi and Thoreau, but also people like Martin Luther. Thanks for watching, I’ll
see you next week. Crash Course is filmed here in the Chad and
Stacey Emigholz studio in Indianapolis. It’s made with the help of all of these nice people.
And it exists because of your support at Subbable.com, an amazing voluntary subscription service
where you can get great perks and support Crash Course directly so we can keep it free
for everyone forever. Now that I said all of that over there, I
really have nothing to say over here so thank you for watching, and as we say in my hometown,
“don’t forget to be awesome.”

Danny Hutson

97 thoughts on “Luther and the Protestant Reformation: Crash Course World History #218

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  2. "Since like the 4th century.." nooo more like the 9th century when the Roman bishop was given pre-eminence over the others.
    Most important part of Protestantism? How about making the Bible available to literally everyone?

  3. In 1543 he wrote a book stating that you Jews need to be persecuted. He wasn't the only one he followed in his footsteps of the Catholics. Then Came John Calvin who also said the Jews need to be persecuted and killed and destroyed. And it will happen again. Ecclesiastes 1:9. History repeats itself and even America will here very shortly so anybody that supports Israel, and anybody that is Jewish out of this country because Islam is moving in watch it and weep. Even today's Christians it also do it and they will bear the consequences. For the sword of Islam is coming and they will die, and they'll lose their heads just like John the Baptist who never joined Jesus.

  4. who loves studying from crash course than studying from your history teacher😋😋😎 Hit a like if u agreee👍👍

  5. Who like to learn from crash course???I scored full marks in history…all credit goes to crash course😊😊

  6. We all need to understand Rev 13. Watch Mark Woodman's video, "Who is the Antichrist". He gives 21 points from the Bible to prove who the Antichrist is. This could be extremely important to you.

  7. God’s judgement starts in His own house, He vomits our superficial gaudy dressed up carnal pagan religion of Christendom, all who make lip service to God, but do not honor Him in their hearts. He will have no more of their performing of rituals, saint idolatry, including maryolatry, and all the pagan false and ultimately self- glorifying worship of Christendom.
    All the west have one urgent issue and it’s not immigration, that is but a part of God’s judgement. The west is experiencing the long awaited judgement of its abandonment of true Christianity!
    Which actually began almost immediately after the Cross, within a couple centuries, when the truth of the scriptures were abandoned for what is called Christendom. The Roman emperor colluding with religious leaders, our so called fathers of the faith, who essentially tolled everyone back under the old covenant law and appeased Rome by repurposing their pagan idols and celebrations for worship. Deceived, they reinstalled yet another self glorifying and perpetuating power that is the hierarchical priesthood! The Roman Catholic Church ruled with or at times over the state as dictators, killing anyone who dare speak against it! That is until the reformers, but again they too fell prey to power by seeking centralized power in the protection of the state…kept the use of OT laws, and reformed sacerdotalism and sacramentalism. Which ultimately lead to condoning the persecution and killing of any nonconformists! Ultimately when men look away from Christ and back to Moses, they lose all glory and fall under same satanic deception again! Satan has continually, very deceptively reformed and rebuilt his synagogues of sin again and again! Satan uses religion to continually deceive the masses even its leaders as they faithfully attend to a building and rituals of empty worship as their souls march further away from Christ!
    Christ is the end of all religion! He is the Law
    He came to set all captives of all religions Free!
    Freedom for Catholic/Muslim/Protestant/Hindu/ Buddha/Atheism, communism, fascism, socialism, scientism, feminism, genderism, All is are just confusionsism!

    For all who are enslaved Christ is the only FREEDOM

    He is GOD and He is SOVEREIGN !

    All Immigration/diaspora is the result of God’s judgement upon His people who have once again returned to their vomit/ their sin which is abandonment to His True Law.. His Eternal Covenant which is with and in Christ!
    Therefore Christ is forevermore the Only solution!
    Consider what the west proclaims as normal now! Does it not resemble Sodom and Gomorrah?
    God destroyed that city. He will not continue to tolerate its reinventions much longer… His judgement has come upon us again and now is the time to call on His Name which is Christ to repent and believe!

    Christ abhors all false worship, He condemns all hypocrisy not only of of the religious leaders but all who give lip service to Him yet willfully break His commands. This is simply hatred for Him in their hearts.
    He detests glorification of buildings and self righteous works.
    His said His temple will not be a building but rather the heart of man and that the chief end of man is to glorify God by preaching His Gospel! All believers are commanded to preach Christ and Him crucified for the forgiveness of sin, to all neighbors, all peoples, regardless of their color or creed. We are commanded to go into all nations preaching the GOSPEL, for IT Alone is the POWER of God for salvation …
    Sharing the Truth of Christ in Grace is how we show true love for God! Believers are to live out what God has worked in with all heart,mind,body and soul! This effectual faith alone is what demonstrates one as having truly put no other gods before Christ, not country nor family.
    The Gospel is making known that Christ lives in us by the power of the Holy Spirit, we have been born again, united with Christ with His Spirit, to live a new here and now and simultaneously eternal life, with and in Him! Life without fear or condemnation for our old sinful souls have been killed and our eternal Spirit in Christ cannot be killed and in Whom there is no shame!

    Christ commands we love others as He loves, forgive our enemy as He forgave!
    All the west is witnessing destruction of self for One purpose that is to repent of unbelief and trust Only Christ and His finished work of salvation on the Cross to be saved!
    Nothing and no one else can save anyone nor any of the west!!!
    Repent of your unbelief … He will forgive your sin and make you Holy to live for Him and not your dying flesh!!!!!!!

    This scripture below echos truth of today’s cultural decline!

    “because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened. They changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things. Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their bodies among themselves, who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. For this reason God gave them up to vile passions. For even their women exchanged the natural use for what is against nature. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing what is shameful, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error which was due. And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a debased mind, to do those things which are not fitting; being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil-mindedness; they are whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, violent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving, unforgiving, unmerciful; who, knowing the righteous judgment of God, that those who practice such things are deserving of death, not only do the same but also approve of those who practice them.”
    ‭‭Romans‬ ‭1:21, 23-32‬ ‭

    Read the bible seeking with your whole heart to see Christ and He will reveal Himself to you..the Truth the Life and Way and the Only Hope for this world!!!
    Christ is the Gospel Truth !!!

    gospel teachers on YouTube
    David HJ Gay
    Nabeel Qureshi
    Ray Comfort

  8. I appreciate the attempt, but wow, you got a few things quite wrong. Although, mostly you just skipped some really important stuff.

  9. I like it when historians say that he dramatically nail his Theses to the church door like if he was Boss Hogg and self. The church door was like pretty much a standard billboard anywhere anyone could nail anything on a church door it's just most common for people to see but he did nothing different than announcing anything like anouncing a sale of something. whatever the case he did not do such a dramatic thing other than be the father of heresy

  10. Catholic Church is the only one that God the Father and son and the Holly spirit there's now other churches Catholic church is 1 and that's it

  11. One, Luther's father wanted him to be a lawyer. He even gave him a a book of law for a birthday present. Second, Luther was in his last year of school when he made the oath to Saint Anne, the patron saint of miners. Third, Luther had to go into seclusion, due to the fact that some people wanted to kill him. Fourth, some nobles used the Reformation to snub the Catholic Church.

  12. Martin Luther: a drunk, a womanizer, and above all HERETIC. Luther and his backers started this revolt to take property from the Church. The selling of indulgences is NOT doctrine and was done by a few corrupt clergy, but is taught as the reason for the revolt.

  13. Remember when the Catholics burned down the great library of Alexandria and prevented us from how steam-powered engines in 1000AD? Because the scientists of Alexandria had actually built and steam engine before the Catholics burned it down. Just imagine, if it weren't for that and the dark ages wouldn't have happened, our science today could be 1000 years more advanced – and maybe even found a solution to pollution and over-population today.

  14. You completely invalidate your own video within the first 0:04 seconds by prominently displaying the bias of your "This Machine Kills Fascists" decal.

  15. (btw, some people say that he didn't nail it on the church door so much as he put them on the 'church bulletin' – and christians read them and that was that yay luther yay)

  16. Protestant & Protestantization in the leavens of the FAITH , not giving unto God what is to God, the source of the Prophesied Apostasy , denoted by.the ex-communication.of QE1 by St.Pope Pius V back then.prophetic to the prophesied falling away , it's theology.become a license to sin , it's.proof seen in the Biblically.Notorious Protestant America sunk in Sodom, the very Marker even.unto.it's glorifications & legalization against the warning.of Jesus "Remember Lots wife " not just to Sodom but complacency towards it.

  17. They do not agree on beliefs, but all claim they are right and all claim to be Bible alone! Someone please say which is the true church?

    Here is a small list of the main Protestant Denominations: keep in mind a lot of these have splintered into other denominations. I guess we can thank Martin Luther for this, all this does is make Christians look bad because we can’t even agree on our own beliefs, and commonly tell other Christians they are going to hell because they do not think the same.

    Advent Christian Church
    Adventists
    African Methodist Episcopal Church
    African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
    Agapemone
    Aglipayans
    Amana Church Society
    Amish Church
    Anabaptists
    Anglican Church
    Anglican Communion
    Anglo-Catholic movement
    Armenian Church
    Arminianism
    Assemblies of God
    Baptists
    Behmenites
    Bereans
    Beroeans
    Bible Christians
    Bible societies
    Brethren
    Brethren in Christ
    Broad Church
    Brotherhood of the New Life
    Brownists
    Burghers
    Calixtines
    Calvinism
    Calvinistic Methodist Church
    Camisards
    Campbellites
    Catholic Apostolic Church
    Christadelphians
    Christian Catholic Church
    Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
    Christian Endeavor
    Christian Reformed Church
    Christian Science
    Christian socialism
    Christians
    Church of Christ, Scientist
    Church of England
    Church of the Brethren
    Church of the Nazarene
    Churches of Christ
    Churches of God, General Conference
    Community of Christ
    Confessing Church
    Congregationalism
    Covenanters
    Cumberland Presbyterian Church
    Diggers
    Disciples of Christ
    dissenters
    Doukhobors
    Dukhobors
    Dunkards
    Dunkers
    Dutch Reformed Church
    England, Church of
    Episcopal Church
    Episcopal Church, Reformed
    Ethical Culture movement
    Evangelical Alliance
    Evangelical and Reformed Church
    Evangelical Church
    Evangelical United Brethren Church
    Familists
    Fifth Monarchy Men
    Foursquare Gospel, International Church of the
    Free Church of Scotland
    Friends, Religious Society of
    fundamentalism
    German Baptist Brethren
    German Catholics
    German Reformed Church
    Gideons
    Glassites
    Harmony Society
    High Church
    Huguenots
    Hussites
    Hutterian Brethren
    Illuminati
    Independents
    Ireland, Church of
    Jehovah's Witnesses
    Latter Day Saints, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of
    Latter-day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of
    Levelers
    Lollardry
    Low Church
    Lutheranism
    Mennonites
    Methodism
    Moral Re-Armament
    Moravian Church
    Mormons
    National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America
    New Church
    New Jerusalem, Church of the
    New Thought
    nonconformists
    Oxford Group
    Oxford movement
    Peculiar People
    Pentecostalism
    People's Temple
    Pietism
    Plymouth Brethren
    Presbyterianism
    Protestant Episcopal Church
    Protestantism
    Puritanism
    Quakers
    quietism
    Racovian Catechism
    Ranters
    Reformation
    Reformed Church in America
    Reformed Church in the United States
    Reformed churches
    Reformed Episcopal Church
    Reformed Presbyterianism
    Remonstrants
    Renewed Church of the Brethren
    River Brethren
    Sabbatarians
    Salvation Army
    Scotland, Church of
    Scotland, Free Church of
    Second Adventists
    separatists
    Seventh-day Adventists
    Seventh-Day Baptists
    Shakers
    Social Gospel
    Socinianism
    Solemn League and Covenant
    South India, Church of
    Taborites
    Tractarian movement
    Tunkers
    Unitarian Universalist Association
    Unitarianism
    Unitas Fratrum
    United Brethren in Christ
    United Church of Canada
    United Church of Christ
    United Methodist Church
    United Presbyterian Church
    United Zion Church
    Unity
    Universalist Church of America
    Utraquists
    Vaudois
    Waldenses
    World Council of Churches
    Yorker Brethren
    Zionites

  18. The Christian religion says that God is tired and that God is remorseful
    How is that !!
    He also says about the messengers whom Allah has chosen that they weigh and that they are evil!

  19. The Christian religion says that God is tired and that God is remorseful

    How is that !!

    He also says about the messengers whom Allah has chosen that they weigh and that they are evil!

  20. Guess what, theres no true christians, theres no even a true religion, all religions are fake and manmade, you can only understand God by studying its creations (science) not by the holy books.

  21. 11:00 Luther would have chose princes in the name of stability? Not likely it's more plausible as he knew the

    Scriptures so well, he could see no evidence for priesthood but not so for the authority of

    civil leaders which receive position from God as the Bible states. Just trying to imagine what it was like to a biblical christian thinker at that time. Enjoyed the channel so far!

  22. John Green, no doubt you're a religious man, a conservative Protestant.
    True, Protestants believe Catholics are "heretics", even "not Christians". But you should remember that Catholics believe Protestants are "heretics" too, not even "Christians". It all depends on who's point of the view.
    So by describing to your audience your point of the view between Catholics vs. Protestants you're not convincing to speak of "the truth".
    The truth is BOTH of you protestants & Catholics are WRONG. Everything about religion is imaginary, NOT REALITY. And anything imaginary isn't true. You can believe Godzilla exists, but in REALITY it doesn't, so you're WRONG.
    And to say religion is only the cause of good & peace is another WRONG. Anything can be the cause of good or peace on one hand, and the cause of evil or war on the other hand. This double sided truth exists in all things in life.

  23. When people have the direct access to scriptures, they could find for themselves what is the truth.

  24. Tell Me more about these Anabaptist. I think what they think the bible supports what they believe. Cant ask a baby to receive salvation. Please do a video about them, thank you

  25. Ive travelled the world and it seems that the Orthodox churches i see seem to be the oldest and original and now im watching a video of how people changed their thoughts and beliefs in thousands of ways. Ill now start a new denomination

  26. I am a Catholic and I went to Catholic schools. I also learned much of this in school. You should make a part 2 of your story on the America's. Many people from Europe left there for the New World to get away from the control of the Catholic Church. The reason why we have Freedom of Religion in the US is because of just this historical events in Europe. what about it, part II?

  27. Luther did nothing new except his timing was converted into fodder for the money hungry finger pointing Salem with trial burning Protestants.

  28. 12:10 Teutonic Order couldn't fight with "the rest of the Poland" because:
    1. Teutons were German colonisers that were fighting for territory both with pagan Balts and neighbouring Poles but they weren't Poles
    2. Territory of Prussia is now in Poland and an Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia because German Teuton colonisers murdered and/or germanized native Baltic Prussian population which were similar to Lithuanians rather than Slavs, including Poles

    What are you gonna say next, nazis were also Poles because they operated mostly on a territory of today's Poland? You sound very ignorant for a history channel.

    Edit: time stamp xd

  29. indulgence is NOT forgiveness. It's only less time in purgatory. Two different things. Forgiveness is just granted in confession by god.

  30. The Reformation didn't lead to wider European literacy. The printing press had already been invented. The printing press was the reason for that.

  31. Heads up from the future ant man got 2 movies and a part in the Avengers. And thor is killin it as well ALSO Martin Luther was a giant Anti-semite in the latter part of his life. He wrote a book call the Jews and their lies.

  32. Luther the great Heresiarch, the horned Monk did his father Satan the greatest favor by stabbing in the heart our Lord and Saviour Bride's, the One, Holy, Indivisible, Apostolic, Roman Catholic Church. "Ubi Petrus ibi ecclesia" "Roma Locuta, Causa FInita." Enough Said.

  33. Protestant culture;customs;traditions influences everything in USA;UK;Europe!

  34. Religion has been blamed for many violence, but don't forget, that Genghis Khan didn't motivate his conquests on religious grounds. And he killed a lot of people. He was like, the Stalin or Hitler of the middle ages, except, you know, his empire lasted bit longer than either Stalin's or Hitler.

  35. 1:37 Dominate? No that is not right. It did not dominate European civilization. It was civilization in Europe. The Catholic Church was Europe.

  36. Protestants, you have been deluded by God because you are the unElect.
    2 Cor 4:4 ~~ In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the likeness of God

  37. "You are now Episcopalian, a Protestant church started because a king wanted to get a divorce"

    laughs in Episcopalian

  38. As a Protestant Christian I believe that this was the point when the West really became Christian. Until then the teachings of Jesus were hidden and perverted by the Catholic Church in order to maintain its worldly authority, and this is the exact sort of thing that the Bible condemns. Only at this point, when it became possible for every Christian to own and read the word of God could Christendom become what Moses said Israel could have become, "a kingdom of priests."

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