How to Break the Internet

How to Break the Internet

There’s a giant network of machines that contains the sum of all human knowledge and connects us as a species that we have become quite reliant upon. We call it the internet. and it is actually, and upsettingly, kind of fragile, and there are plenty of ways to break it. Actually, you might not have noticed but there were widespread internet outages just last year thanks to a glitch in what is known as the Global Routing Table, which is basically a map of the internet. Every device connected to the internet has an address, and when you use the internet, you need to send data back and forth between those addresses. But to get to its destination, that data needs to be bounced around to a few different places along the way. And to make sure it gets to the right place,
it needs directions. Those directions are stored in the Global Routing Table, and practically every router, which redirects packets of data from one network to another, uses them. The problem is, routers have limited memory,
and older ones were only designed to hold 512,000 entries in their maps of the internet. But the internet has gotten bigger than that. So in August of 2014, the routing tables finally passed 512,000 routes at which point older routers registered a memory overload and just stopped working. Basically, the internet broke. Companies developed a workaround by allocating more memory, to allow more entries to the table, but at best it raised the capacity to about 1 million routes, which only buys us a few years’ worth of time. And it took a while for everybody to implement the fix and meanwhile, lots of people lost access to the internet. Still, overloading the routing table is something that we can predict and something that we can fix. There are other, less innocent ways to break the internet and one of them is incredibly simple:
cut the cables! And I’m not talking about the cables in your house, even though that would break the internet for you. I’m talking about the massive lengths of fiber that stretch across the ocean floor, connecting the internet across the continents;
because, yeah, those exist! We transmit our data the same way we sent overseas telegrams in the late 19th century, there have been a few upgrades, obviously, but the general concept is the same. The good news is that the cables aren’t that vulnerable. In the shallower areas of the ocean, they’re designed to be shark-proof, which chopping through them pretty tough. Also, yeah, we had to make the internet shark-proof! In deeper areas, the cables are so deep that if companies ever need to access them, which they sometimes do for maintenance, they need to use special ships, just to haul them up to the surface. But, there have been times when
cable failures have been a problem In 2003, for example, one group of cables failed twice within a few weeks, mainly affecting the UK where internet speeds slowed by about 1/8th. And as recently as 2013, three people were arrested for deliberately trying to cut the cables providing service to Alexandria in Egypt. There are hundreds of cables throughout the world, though. It would take some real effort to cut through enough of them to cause long-term damage. But despite all of our planning and all of our failsafes, there are still things that are outside of our control, and those things could break the internet for a good long while. Whenever there’s a solar flare, for example, the sun sends out lots of high-energy radiation, distorting the Earth’s magnetic sphere. A huge solar storm has the potential to wipe out important parts of our infrastructure like the power grid,
and without electricity, there is no internet. Though really at that point, the lack of internet would not be the biggest of our problems. How likely are we to get that bad of a solar storm? Well, not very, thankfully.
The last time something of that magnitude hit Earth was in 1859, but electricity was much less of a big deal back then. That storm did knock out some telegraphs, but all things being considered, we did okay. But in 2012, we had a very near miss: the sun sent out a massive flare that would have done serious damage if it had hit us. Luckily, it was pointing in a different direction. So, barring unforeseen issues with the routing table, some damaged cables, or a super-intense solar flare, hopefully the internet will be sticking around for a very long time. Thank you for spending your limited time on the internet watching SciShow while you still can! Thank you especially to our Patreon patrons, who help make this show possible. If you want to help support us, plus get access to cool stuff, like bloopers and live streams that we do just for our supporters, check out And don’t forget, if you want to keep getting smarter with us, to go to and subscribe!

Danny Hutson

100 thoughts on “How to Break the Internet

  1. The problem with the 512,000 routes mentioned here is related to the BGP – the protocol ("system") used to share such routes.
    Once we switch over to IPv6, we would not only solve the lack of addresses (this is another serious problem, NOT mentioned in this video), but the routing tables should also get significantly smaller, since in IPv6 it is possible – much more than in the current IPv4 – to group several networks into one larger network. For example, all the companies that are connected to a single ISP might be announced to the outside world as a single network.
    However, a change to IPv6 would also require many companies to upgrade their routers.

  2. How to survive the no-internet shit:
    1. Download shit
    2. Download more shit
    3.Delete crappy shit
    4.Bring out chips and use downloaded shit
    Thats it

  3. couldn't a mass of nuclear EMPs do a ton of damage to the internet? for every server that doesn't have ssd as its main storage or shielding, that just mass carnage of a lot of areas that make up the internet.

  4. this is a router, which rhymes with outer. your router rhymes with hooter.

  5. If you type google into google you can break the internet. (I sincerely hope someone gets this reference)

  6. the thing about the internet is that it was thrown together as it goes. it's a little bit disorganized as something that big and thrown together as it is.

  7. you almost got me I was about to post about the Carrington event and our recent near-miss but you added it at the very end right as I was hitting on the comment

  8. So if the internet is connected by one big world wide grid of wires, where do the wires centrally come from? Or are there just little internet stations in each country? Where exactly is the internet? is what I guess im trying to ask.

  9. How to break the Internet in 5 easy steps (feat: AShit Lie):
    1. Be a Verizon shill
    2. Become the chairman of the FCC.
    3. Repeal net neutrality despite the overwhelming majority being for net neutrality
    4. Profit $$$$$$$$$$$$$$

  10. universe.GetService(“Internet”) if Internet == nil then return nil elseif then internet:Destroy ( ) “lUA yaYYY1!1!1!1!1!!1!111!!1”

  11. “Basically, the internet broke.” “Yeah, we had to make the internet shark-proof.” The quotes from Scishow are the best.

  12. I am head of IT and I have it on good authority. If you type 'google' into Google, you can break the internet. So please, no one try it. Even as a joke. It's not a laughing matter. You can break the internet.

  13. How to break the internet, talk about racism, ethics, religion, war or any major subject. Humans are argumentative af

  14. That Egypt one was cutting it to give cover to the NSA sub that was cutting and splicing in a T slitter. You'll notice how there is no documentation of any prosecution or anything, the divers that where cutting it just dissapeared and news never asked why.

  15. Quite a few years ago there was a strike in Newfoundland by their only service provider, well words were said back and forth and the boys had enough. They went into the woods dug up and cut a fibre optic line that fed the capital city and surrounding areas. it wasn't until 911 hadn't received a call in nearly two hours that they knew there was a major problem. You see Newfoundland had dial up until only a few years ago I kid you not, so connecting to the internet had always been a serious challenge until recently. So that's why it took so long to discover the problem?

  16. if we break the internet we can save the world so I am gonna do it when I get enough money to do it it's either that or what thanos was gonna do walp out half of the population of our planet and I don't know how to do that lol

  17. Oh that's easy….just talk about Hillary and her string of consolation prizes or SuperTrump can't save the universe…done?, YOURE WELCOME….wait….EARTHQUAKES??

  18. Unless they protect it with rubber barrier so we don't lose power or else we have reconstruction new ones and that will be a pain.

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