Delivering the Promise of Africa’s Youth

focus on the
millenials , we have moved
beyond that. The focus
is on the post-millennial
generation, the people
between the ages of
15 and 25 , what is to
be done for them? If we look
at the unemployment
statistics by region, South
Africa as a
reflection of Southern Africa
has an unemployment
rate closer to 29%. If you look
at the unofficial
statistics, they tell you
it is 40%. Nigeria currently
has an unemployment
rate of summer
between 23% and 25% and it is
believed by next year it
will be 30% on the.. The largest
economy Kenya has an
unemployment rate of
over 11%. As large a
figure it is, it is the most
encouraging figure on the African
continent at the moment, and that it is
the lowest. Collectively
the countries of North Africa
have unemployment
at 25%. If you look at
the averages, in almost every
major economy a quarter of
the population are people who
cannot find a job. And so what we
are going to do this
afternoon is moved beyond
the statistics and ask how do
we remedy the situation, because the
time for talking
is over. It is now time
to find solutions. Let me
introduce you to our panel. We have seated
next to me his Excellency the President
of Botswana, Mokgweetsi
Eric Keabetswe Masisi, next to him,
her Excellency, the president
of Ethiopian, Sahlework
Zewde, seated next
to her is the chairman and
founder of Nigeria’s
largest bank, Jim Ovia, seated next
to him is a civil
society activists, a former VP
for Africa at the World Bank, Obiageli
Katryn Ezekwesili, and seated
next to her is the vice
president for global
policy at Google,
Karan Bhatia. Let’s get
talking, President,
let’s talk with you. Botswana. So many
positive indicators,
democracy, development,
growth. And yet here is
a country set to have
unemployment at 18%. That is a
staggering figure. For a country
with just 2 million
people. Do you agree that for you
it is a ticking
timebomb?>>Absolutely. And thank you
anyway for your
introductory remarks,
particularly about what we
see outside and watch you
as South Africans
represent. Because. This could be , in any of
our countries , given the
situation. 18% for a
country like Botswana is a scary
figure. And when you
unpack it even more, out of that
18% of the majority are
young people , fairly well
educated, even what we do
in Botswana. With a lot of
expectations of the future. And yet the burden of
frustration, of not being
able to find jobs, could
easily be offset and cause such
people to venture into
other things that may
not be as desirable. So yes it is
a ticking timebomb.>>President
from Ethiopian, it is projected that by next
year, unemployment
in Ethiopian will be 19.4%. If Ethiopian
has one of the highest and
fastest growth rates on the
African continent, it
started opening
markets, you have
dented poverty, I’m trying to
figure out, everything else
seems to be working but why can
you not get a grip on the
employment issue?>>Thank you
very much. Let me start
by really commending
what you said at the beginning. South Africa,
we know it is not the one
we see. And I would
like also for people
to understand that foreigners who live far away from their
homeland contributes
to those countries, they are not
only burdens. Really, we
sympathise for those who
have been suffering and of course we have,
all of us, condemned Gender Based
Violence , definitely
this is not the Africa
we want , for 2063. We have
to work together. If this unemployment situation for youth and not having the prospect for a better
future can be a
ticking bomb, that is
for sure. I must say
Ethiopian has embarked into a very
transformative and inclusive
process for only 12
months now, a little bit
more than that. And many
things have . Are being
done in order to address this very
important issue. And I think it is a conversation which is very
pertinent at the
continent level. We are trying
to address, for instance, the Prime
Minister has embarked
into a plan to have 3
million new jobs for the
next year. We are
starting a new year next week. And that is in
order to make sure that those
who benefit from the
policies and
commitments made by the
government could also
contribute in hiring young
people. So I think it is a
transition , we believe
we are on the right path, this is a very
pertinent issue to
address.>>Jim Ovia, let’s get a
perspective from you. As a
representative of the private
sector, you founded
Nigeria’s largest bank,
market capitalisation
and assets, you are
employing a lot of people,
you are employing the
high skilled girls and boys , people who
come with tech , finance, MBAs, what you make
of the ones at the bottom of
the pyramid, the people who
are desperate for jobs that
would never be able to work
in your bank?>>Thank you. The bottom of
the pyramid , the youths , the unemployed and those
who have great energy , those who
have the potential to be trained and also those who
embrace digital
technology , the beauty
of having a young
African population , by statistics , I just
finished a session where
we were discussing the Africa growth plan. And the
focus was principally how do we
somehow use , create jobs
for the youth. That was the
World Economic Forum, the
conference , since last
year 2008. v . That is what has been
forecasted now. The figure was
slightly over 400 million
youths looking
for jobs that needed to
be empowered. Interestingly,
we found out , it would be to impress
digital to the. – – Technology. That is the growth, they are not
necessarily interested in transactions as it used to
be several years ago. And right here , I am very
proud to say that the number of
African youths , Nigeria, South
Africa, and to some
extent Kenya, they have gone beyond the
shores of Africa to . To the Silicon
Valley in California to raise
funding from venture
capital , to raise
funding from managers from the
businesses and the most
impressive thing here , why am
so proud , there is . Really the
target numbers you are making
reference to , they are
unemployed, don’t have
skills, but let’s look
at it the other way
around. They are
no going outside the
shores of Africa. They are being
well received by the venture
capitalists , managers in Silicon
Valley. A sizeable
amount of money, it is an issue of proper
governance. They have been
able to do that, issue of rule
of law. Recognise
contract , contractual
obligations able to honour
them. It happened
five years ago, it is names . It has gone
global straight away. Implement
system , at technology. The system. You would be
very impressed , the recognitions . And for Africa , plan , platform,
opportunity. For growth platform. We should
be targeting about 400 400 million new start-up companies in the area of SME. Small medium
scale enterprises in
the next five years. If we achieve
that target, the
unemployment we are talking
about . We reverse the
narrative. What does the
future look like. The future is the
Industrial Revolution. It will come
after it. Young people
are already drawn into
a future made up of the eyes
of this world. Artificial
Intelligence, in the world, and ecosystem. It is about
blocking technologies
and all the algorithms and things
that are totally. The kind of
education that we are
offering them. So we are
talking about a pool
of people , to enter the
labour market every year. Only 10% of
the 12 million would find
anything that is defined as decent jobs according
to ILO. If we could
find those jobs, we have
this 90%, then society, that is the issue of
governance for us. We must look
at the failure of governance to actually , to have the
right kinds of policies that lead
to growth. The growth
that is diversifying, growth that
is inclusive. And part of
this is what kind of education
system , what kind
of skills are we emphasising, what kind
of economic opportunities , and she agreed issue – – he gets the
right kinds of policies , telecommunications, it is the
structure of the African
economy. We have
understood that. So what is
it about our working
politics on this continent that is making
us have people who are
comfortable enough to watch the number
of people that are on
the margins of economic possibilities. That is the
conversation and I think
that at the heart
of it politics
trumps economy on our continent. That is
dangerous.>>Are you saying
our politics are counter-productive?>>It is not a
good thing and I believe
that the conversation
about our politics has to be a
conversation around the
quality of politics on our continent.>>Thank you. Mr Bhatia , over to you. We are now
in the fourth industrial
revolution. The economies
are digitising . But the pool
of skills does not match
what is happening in industry
and commerce. How can
you help?>>Is it a ticking
timebomb? The answer is yes,
possibly. But it can
also be an unbelievable
source of growth in
the continent . The youthful
population here , it is glass have
Phil, glass half
empty. When I look
at the continent, we
see enormous opportunities
of the right set of policies
are adopted. Let me say
that I think technology . I will be an evangelist or technology
as the solution
to this challenge. If you think
about what it
provides that is unique
from any other sector , it is a
leveller. It is
equality. The poor rural
youth here , to the extent
that they can gain access to
the internet , they have
access to the exact same search engine search [email protected], the same Gmail , the same
Android phone system as a
rich person half way round
the world. At its
essence, the technology is
levelling. How do we
enable that? I would
suggest four things. One is access. The reality
is that Africa today is
trailing badly in terms of
internet access ability. 35% as opposed to
over 50% in the Asia
Pacific region and higher
elsewhere. The
responsibility for that falls on the
private sector and government. We can do
a better job building the
products to enable that
access, but we need government to work by
correcting market
investing in the right
things. The second
is a digital culture. We need to
build into that mindset
of every actor . How do we build
solution , digital, into
the solution? The third
is an area we feel
passionately about. Yesterday I
was with a group of children in
a township. The talent,
passion and skill
is there. We need to be
able to create mechanisms. Lastly, regulation and
policy are important.>>I want to stay
with you briefly. I remember
speaking to the CEO of an African
multinational in the telecommunications and they said
the reality of the ground in
Africa, 30% of the population are
living in the 4G world , everybody
else is in the 2G world. They know what
is available to them. They cannot
afford to access it , so technology
is not a leveller.>>Not only that,
they are living in
a 2G world at prices that
are many times what one
would pay in the
developed market. It is not fair
and it is an enormous disable of
growth. But it is
fixable .>>How can it
be fixed? When you are
speaking to policymakers on the African
continent, how do you
say to them technology is
the lever that changes the economy
and this is how to roll
it out?>>It is a
combination between
investing in fundamental
network structure , but at the
same stage marrying that with market
reform. The market in Africa in
many cases is fragmented. It is great to
see the free trade agreement
coming in. Hopefully
that will lead to the
integration that we need. It also
requires greater
competition in some markets.>>I want to bring
the comment that was made
there. Calls Our politicians being>>What are the
incentives of business to
get it into workplace.>>We want to
provide as many incentives
as possible and we want to
help them deal with natural
challenges they face. You open up
the skies, There is a huge influx into the cities , where we don’t have enough services and schools and so on for all of them. We go into that frustration and it fuels into any kind of other challenges. If I have the floor, also let me say that I think globally, since it is a global problem, we need to go from this kind of conversation in boardrooms to the grassroots. We have a huge problem , and I say it forcefully, because I have been a national civil servant and so on. You have many interval productions on all issues. We have programs going to the ground. So there is a huge Mitch match between policies, commitments . I agree with
what was said, we have an
issue with leadership and
governance. I believe that education has
a big role to play. It is high time
globally to examine and rethink what education is for the
future of mankind.>>I want to
stay with you. You see we
have a future of policy and
governance. We do not get to sit in
those exclusive meetings with
fellow heads of state,
but you do. Do you look
your peers in the eye
and tell them this is
nonsense , you can
do better?>>I am a newcomer. ( laug hter) I have been
a backbencher for so long . I can tell you
very honestly , we have
to change the way we
do business , we have to
accept this. I think
we have what it takes
to change the situation within our
country’s and within
our continent . But we definitely have to change the way we are
addressing serious
issues.>>You have been
silent, but let’s bring
you in. I was in Lagos a few weeks
ago and I was
speaking with the leading
manufacturer . It was said
that the market is
slowly opening up
but actually, it is the
banking sector that is
observing the best
talent in Nigeria. Someone will
come out of university a
mechanical engineer but will end
up working in a bank. They will come
out with ICT skills and will end
up working in a bank. The banks are
mopping up everyone who
has talent . That is
because the rest of
the economy doesn’t have
the capacity to absorb the skills and to turn the skills. When you speak
as the business community in
Nigeria, how do you think you will go
about starting these problems?>>I think it is
a good thing that we have
great talent in the bank
industry to be able to keep your money
for you! Opportunities are everywhere. It depends on
the structure of the
economy. Not just the
economy itself, but specific
industries. If the banking
industry decides to
structure itself in such a way that talent is
put out there to manage a
huge amount of resources and responsibilities , we cannot afford to lose depositor s ‘ money. We cannot
afford to lose money that
belongs to
stakeholders, so we must structure the
industry in such a way that
the best out there. Can we do
the same for communications? Yes. The power
sector ? The answer
is yes. Agriculture ? Yes. Why is it
not done? Government
policies . We have just
alluded to recently , the
government policies anywhere
in Africa are exactly
what have to be changed. The government have to come
up with policies that enable all the
sectors to blossom. Everyone will want
to be in
agriculture, or want to
be a Pharma, it is going
to be very profitable. — farmer. ICT in many
countries like Nigeria, many other
countries, you see that ICT, one of the highest listed market capitalisation
is, it is ICT. So they
are doing it very well. That is
because the government
policy favours
that too. What about the
power centre, not much had
been done in that regard. In many
countries the government
needs to come up with
enabling policies for power. So that there
is power everywhere. There is
darkness of many African
countries, total darkness. Why can’t
we come up with the right
policy, right incentive,
everyone will go into
the power sector and brighten
up Africa.>>Briefly,
Nigeria is the largest economy
in Africa at the moment,
Nigeria has to work, just
south of precursors — South Africa
is the largest, they have to
work, when the two biggest
players are There are two
economies travelling
on their respective tracks and
never meeting. The real
challenge is that
political expediency is keeping
your politicians from taking
the measures necessary to make this
economy as productive and competitive as it should
be. The opportunities are incredible. There is
so much to leverage. What is it
that we know grows economies and opportunities? If you have
the right policies, you
are good. If you have
strong institutions and regulation , your good. If you invest effectively and efficiently in the public
goods that represent basic service livery to
citizens and business, you are good. We know these
things. We know that economies that
are enviable today, which used
to be lower in GDP per capita compared to
South Africa. Compared to China . China went
from where? Less than
$1 trillion Less than $1
trillion-$14 trillion
of GDP. We know that just embracing the basic principles of the markets and allowing the market
to set the incentive for the
business ? And by the way , you should
get it right now . the business
elite and the
political elite will be
in trouble in this continent. If you want
to say it is not
our business to talk to the
government . huh , you’ve got
to modify. Because what the
continent is in need of is a sense
of urgency. This feeling that we have relative
comfort and we can’t
manage to navigate it, it
will not last for long. We all
must use our voice. We need good
governance on this
continent and good
politics because
frankly, I came to
this place not to be
in a normal world economic
Forum, but to say that what we are
seeing in our respective
countries will not be wished away.>>I want to stay with
you because it is not just South Africa
that is in trouble. There is
a UN report , a bit old but
still valid . it found that 40% of young
people who had joined rebel movements , militant
groups or criminal
gangs , 40% of those
young recruits said they did
it because they had
no jobs. When you are
unemployed , you get
swayed. How much more of a problem are we
going to experience?>>We will
experience much more of it until we
fix it. Problems are not . .. What do you
call it? Rocket science. The good thing
for Africa is that
we find examples of countries and continents that have been
down at heart , but what did
they take to solve it? We now understand some critical
factors that go
together to create growth. I want us
to take one thing
away. We will not
find bandits as solutions
because they do not last. We need structural
change of our economy , of our
political landscape . What it means is we have to be deliberate and
intentional about what we
are seeing on our streets. And we are not. You know what
we are doing? Having good,
normal situation conversations,
and that is unhealthy. That is
playing the ostrich. The young
people that are out
there and extremely
angry and they
do not differentiate
between you , me and him. The fact that
you have any opportunity at
all on the continent means that
you are in trouble. What we must
avert our minds to is how to be
expand the opportunities? If you look
at all the sectors of
comparative advantage for Africa, why have
we failed to take the
very tough measures of the kinds
of policies that would
jumpstart those sectors? That is
where the opportunities
will come from. But bad
politics gets in the way. Our
politicians love for
themselves . The problem is
politics on our continent, bad
leadership. We should not in any way hide it any
further. We must
disrupt them ourselves. (Applause)>>Karen a n, a brief
contribution from you and
I will take questions from
the floor. I cannot tell
you how many times I have
heard the term fourth
industrial revolution. Every day,
every week. Sometimes
you wonder , the politicians using the
terminology, do they
understand it? They know it
is a sexy phrase , but do they
get it?>>I think there
are politicians who do understand . The phrase
I would use is the answer
is not rocket science, it is computer
science. I think the
dedication that exists in many
pockets in government
in Africa that we
have seen , at a routine
level , trying to
do things to develop that skill set
is laudable. For instance,
at Google we have recently entered into
a agreement with the
government of Nigeria where
we will be supplying
curriculum. 56 million
Nigerian students
will get a model around
computer science. It will not
equip them to be elite coders
but it will develop that fluency. There are some
that get it. At the end
of the day, this will
require a partnership. Government has
a significant role to play and Ob i is right . of
bad qualities are adopted, as this
will leave and take their dollars elsewhere. Right now,
there is an opportunity. If we could
just figure out that right
path, the combination of
private sector investment and
government engagement
could yield some
spectacular things.>>In the interest
of time, I will take five
comments. Here are
the rules. We only want
to hear from men and women
in the room who have a
solution to offer. From your role in your organisation , in your
country , what have
you done to dent poverty? What are you
doing right now that we can actually track scientifically to say since this
was done, this is how
many jobs were created. We want to hear about those
experiences. If you think
that is you, put up your
hand. We want to
hear from you. Yes, sir? Please
stand up for the microphone. Anybody else? Please
stand up, the microphone will get
to you. Anybody who has
a story to tell us about how you
have created jobs and addressed
this issue of youth despair caused by unemployment. I know there
are many of you in the
room. Sir, and Madame
here. Stand up
for the microphones. Let’s go, sir.>>I come from a company
called Sutherland. Over the last 16 years, we
have made about 45,000
jobs in African
countries in the IT and
services space. It has been
stakeholder alignment. We have gone
to countries where we
understand what their
priorities, the world
economic Forum has a great opportunity, we have gone
and done that. We have worked
with heads of state, said this is
important for us. Takes too
much time. Then we work with
communities in those countries
with the alignment of
stakeholders, heads of states
and communities,
mayors, build infrastructure, build the
bandwidth, connectivity,
build the buildings,
train people in a few years
time and we make jobs in many
countries like that.>>How many
jobs?>>45,000 jobs. I have
struggled to find a way to
do something in Africa, I
have come for many years,
to get the alignment
with these stakeholders. Including your
country, you I was
promising 10,000 jobs, we could
not get to Ethiopian
or in South Africa.>>Thank you
for sharing and hope you can get the Ethiopian
delegation to talk.>>I represent SAP Africa , a program
called SAP next
gen I run about building
the next generation for
the talent , the
technology ecosystem. I managed to
program for Africa but I
run a global initiative, I
Want to Hear an example
from an SAP perspective of
how we have tried to tackle
the disparity between youth
skills and what is needed
in the market. We have tried
to take an approach, we
will look at the value,
the person building a
skill set, building
a career. We create
programs that focus on
learners, youngsters, and also have
a program that focuses on
youth post 18, also have a
program that looks at people
unemployed graduates, for
example, in their 20s,
who need to support
families around them. The first
programme we run with youth
is a broad. A low impact,
high-volume programme where we
introduce awareness
around coding skills, through the
Africa code week program, celebrated
five years of that program yesterday and
of the last five years
trade 5 million youth
across the African continent. We work very
closely with grassroots
level organisations, we realise
that SAP we cannot be
everywhere all the time. We leverage the networks
already working within
communities and use them
to drive the solution and
upscale the youth, and
with the youngsters
University youth, if we run
a rigorous programme
across the continent. We work with
universities and empower
them to teach students. The messages
what we do, we work through
others at the grassroots
level and it allows us to
have broader reach.>>Before you
sit down, many young people
are watching via live
stream, if they want to
get your program whether
they go?>>They can
follow at SAP NexGen, find
information on twitter. Africa code
week is a good
platform and SAP Africa.>>Thank you
very much.>>I achieve
growth officer at a company,
we have about 1600 direct
employees, what we do is build out
the technology and finance
infrastructure to enable
mobility in Nigeria
today , oh the next
12 months. We have raised
about $8 million in
funding and taken
the average income from about $83 a month when we first
started to between six
and $800 a month right
now. What we do, we have looked
at the value chain, figured
out the issues. Most of these
drivers never get. The taxis,
the cost of operating
the Messiah initially. We have built
up a detailed background
check process where we
randomly bring in the drivers,
the automatic tests on them, and see who
can work this kind of
business in Nigeria. Do a lot
of work around
streamlining, training for
them, in the space of
two weeks ago through
a rigorous training
programme. After that, we give them the course. What we have
done is also bring in
funders so we work with Nigeria, a
couple. We have
crowdfunding is, the platform. We take money
from these people, lend
it to drivers that or 2%
per annum, they can
purchase motorcycles outside the
max in Nigeria, it
is 100 200 persons in
interest rates. You don’t get
any access at all. So we look at
what it is and provide
the technology . So the average
consumer, in the
business, the entire
system is built around these drivers. We track them
before they join the
platform, work with them throughout,
provide education , how to ride and how to
make more money.>>Thank you
very much. Jim Ovia, you
should come and talk
with him.>>That is
the plan.>>I have
financing, if you see me
after at double digits,
it is done. (Applause)>>Yes. My name is
Megan, the director of
the barefoot College
International, an organisation
that works to bring into the
formal economy young people
as well as women,
primarily in rural areas where they
have not had access to a
formal education. I think this
conversation is not
complete, because we
continue to discuss the Pathways
to work as a silver
bullet for people who
can read and write. Instead of
really talking about the
investment that must be
made in our rural
populations in Africa , in order to
enable them to be both entrepreneurial , full of
confidence, competence and
self belief , able to
create self-sustaining and vibrant
rural communities. And I think
this definition, the
same way the definition of
education needs to begin
to widen to include many
different pathways , to joining
informal economy, this
conversation about work needs to
widen. I see thousands
of young people who feel
they are not able to join
simply because they have not
had access to learning.>>Thank you,
yes, sir.>>I am from Africa
accounts, and references, known as
Thomson Reuters, talking
to policy, but we are
taking advantage of
any South African context
is Trip le BE, we take
advantage of that. For the nature
of the business we do,
we do not necessarily
have to conform to
South Africa, we
see our competitors, we have
insisted in South Africa that we have
to comply to BE closed because we want to do
business and of course
do well. Of course, the
numbers we’re talking about
is not as enormous as the
40,000 jobs , that other
firms are creating. We’re talking
but 20, 30 graduates
we take from
disadvantaged communities. It is a small
raise. The other
part of the problem, we
are always looking at big scale
impact and so on, forgetting
that even the
one or two graduates or any youth
that you take in no small
numbers will have a
big impact in the long run. That is the
only small way we are doing
good in the context
of South Africa. SPEAKER:
Another small, one job created
is a good job created. Let’s rip up
the panel. We have
slightly less than 5 minutes. Your Excellency, one thing we
did not delve into his
education and how we
are preparing the youth for
the promise of the future. From your perspective, what are the
immediate interventions
needed?>>We need to
get into a very intense character. We need
the full understanding that the
curricula we are reviewing will probably
be relevant in a few
years time. Therefore you
need to have a design , it can continuously change and allow for new skill sets , new knowledge
bases to be absorbed. And finally,
I think it is important that
we understand , from the very
word go, we need to invest
differently, we need to put
our money where it
matters most.>>President?>>I think
this is what we should
be doing, in Ethiopian we
are reviewing . We have a
roadmap on education,
it is under . This is what
we should be doing. As I have said, the education
we give should be
really matching the need of the
country. I do not think
we need many Ph.D.’s and so
on, we have amazing, young
Ethiopians, a woman is
involved in the intelligence. She started
at the age of nine. I don’t know
why she should be going to a
Ph.D., we have to review the whole
thing and it has to match
the need of the country,.>>Jim Ovia,
the skills that you
think would then affect
young people going forward?>>Many of the
young people have
education, they are
educated already , they lack the
skill to the form certain
specific tasks. They need it to have their
skills, how do they acquire
the skills, by creating
additional vocational
schools. In the area
of ICT or in the
area of agriculture or in the
area of manufacturing or in the area of petrochemical. These are the
various areas that would
create jobs for the youth and they
themselves would create
jobs , innovators, makers,
builders and also employers. They need to
be employers as opposed to
looking for jobs , we need to
prepare them to be able to
create jobs themselves , as the
Chinese say, if you give
150 each, you feed him for
one day, if you teach him
how to fish, he is going
to be for life and employer and feed
himself alight.>>You are a
former minister of
education. Policy -wise,
what needs to change?>>We need to
render the very anachronistic ministries
of education redundant. A lot of what
is going on is showing
us that once you give a
child basic literacy , education is totally
differently defined for the 21st
century. We need to
upgrade our mindset
to that. Change , entirely
overhaul the education
Ministry’s across the
continent. Take away
the people who are
still tied to the old ideas of the British
education system , of which they
believe they are Guardian
Angels. We must
overhaul that. Number two is we need
to look at each of the
sectors from where our
opportunities can come . Look at what
it is that would
make those sectors
productive and competitive. Then invest our
policies and institutions and investment
into that. Number three, we need to get this conversation around the
social contract between the
leaders , the political
leadership of the continent, and the
citizens. Because we
are operating a broken
social contact . That is why
instead of being a conversation, we have
conflict and friction . It is time to
change that.>>Karan Bhatia,
we are told in the future driverless
cars, we will be putting
our money in block 10, our cities
will be run through artificial
intelligence, affirming will be done
in the same way. What do we
need to be able to do
to function?>>We need to be
excited about the future because there
is tremendous opportunity out there. Secondly, on
the education point . we will
continue to need a
diversity of subject matter
experts in Africa. But I will say
that all of those sectors
will be digitally
enabled. There has to
be some level of digital
literacy. Lastly, we
need to emphasise girls and
women’s education as
much as men’s. One of the
things I’m proud about at Google,
we announced an objective
to educate 10 million
kids in Africa , digital
education, with a 50%
target being women
and girls. We all need
to focus on that.>>Thank you
very much. Join me in
thanking Karan Bhatia, of Julia Mac , – – you for
your time. (Applause)

Danny Hutson

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