2016 Fall Faculty Forum – Using Technology to Engage Students

2016 Fall Faculty Forum – Using Technology to Engage Students


PHIL MIXTER: Good
afternoon branch campuses from around the state. My name is Phil Mixter, coming
to you from the Pullman campus. And I’m simply introducing
the afternoon session. For about the next
hour, we’re going to focus on technology
that engages students in a couple
of different contexts. Just really briefly,
our first presentation is about GoPro video in
the surgical lab session or setting rather. And we have Dr. Rob
Keegan and Dr. Julie Noyes from the clinical
training program associated with veterinary clinical
sciences at Washington State University. Our second presenter
is Brian Collins, an assistant professor in
physics and material sciences. And he’s going to talk
about using Perusall, which is a software program
that allows discussion of PDF content asynchronously
by your students. You can use that with textbooks
that are available online. And Brian will talk
more about that. Our last presentation
is Dr. Tom Salsbury, who’s an associate professor
in the Department of Teaching and Learning. He teaches in the elementary and
secondary education programs. And he will use AMS in a
number of ways in the Master’s and Teaching Program. And his students are divided
between Pullman and Spokane. So he’ll solve the
distance challenge in a number of creative ways
for future K-12 teachers. So, with that, I’ll
encourage you to settle in. And I’ll turn the floor
over to Dr. Keegan to talk about GoPro videos
in surgical training. ROBERT KEEGAN: OK. Great. Thanks, Phil. As Phil mentioned, my
name is Rob Keegan. I am an anesthesiologist at
the vet school here at WSU. And then you’re going to
be hearing from Dr. Julie Noyes, who is working
with me on this project to assess our
students using GoPro videos during their
anesthesia and surgery labs. I just wanted to set the
stage and talk a little bit about how we got where we are. This is the timeline from
the time I’ve been here. I realize that I’ve been here
a really long time now coming here in 1988. And it’s just a timeline of how
we have taught our anesthesia course and how we’ve
incorporated clinical skills into anesthesia. And so the timeline
is listed there. And then there is
a little arrow that shows the amount of
clinical experience, relative clinical experience,
that our students have gotten, the different methods
that we’ve used to teach. So when I first came
the anesthesia course was simply a
lecture only course. We did participate in a
live animal laboratory, but it was not part
of the course, per se. Later on, that was
not the best way, we thought, to teach anesthesia. And we felt that it
had to have some type of a clinical
laboratory component. So we added a laboratory
component to that. And I do believe the
clinical experience went up. That’s my personal
opinion, and also from student evaluations
and evaluations from surgeons in later labs. For a variety of
reasons, all of them good, we have sort of phased
out our live animal teaching laboratories. For purely laboratory,
we introduced a variety of computer
simulations and models, several of them that we
developed here at the college. And then eventually
in 2010, we eliminated most of our live
animal laboratories, again, for some
very good reasons. But that kind of left our
students with a decline in their clinical experience. And so in an effort to increase
their clinical experience without using live
animals, we thought about employing
some high fidelity simulation into their training
together with our lecture. And so that’s where the arrow
points upward and points to the question mark. It’s an interesting question
to us to evaluate this and to find out if it’s
working, how well it’s working, and how we might
adjust it to help our students in the future. So the simulation
that we have developed in our clinical
simulation laboratory is a hybrid simulation
that’s a computer simulation of anesthetic
machine and monitor and that can be seen
in the upper right slide on the big
computer screen there. That is controlled usually
by me in the back room. And I will manipulate
varying monitor settings, control patient’s blood
pressure, and EKG, and heart rate, and all that stuff. The students are on the
other side of the room. And they’re in a
mocked up surgery room with an anesthesia
machine and, like I said, a task trainer for a patient. And so they will respond
to the simulation. They will adjust controls and
settings on the anesthesia machine and respond
to various events that they would see in
an actual live patient. And we do this without
any live patients, just with the computers
and with the mannequins. So we developed
several scenarios that the students would see in
a typical conduct of anesthesia on a live animal. And we came up with
several learner takeaways for each of these
scenarios, what we wanted the students
to take away or get out of this session. And then ways of
performance measures, how we would measure if
the students did the or got the takeaways appropriately,
if they performed adequately. And so those are
listed up there. These are very time
consuming to create. They take probably four to
eight hours to create each one. But the good part is
once you’ve created one, you can reuse and reuse
it for many, many times. The right part of the slide
just shows a progression of events in the simulation,
a series of states that the simulation
goes through, and what the students
experience through that. And, of course, we adjust
the simulation on the fly based on the
students’ responses. So this is a recorded session
that is in our simulation lab. And I’m just going to
play a short clip of this. And you may or may not be able
to hear the student banter that’s going back and forth. But there is the monitor,
computer simulation we developed. It’s got parts of an EKG,
parts of an anesthetic machine, and various monitors
that display heart rate, temperature,
and all various things that you would see when
providing anesthesia to a patient. So this goes on. The students will see
potentially adverse effects occurring. And then they will go
ahead and they will respond to those adverse effects. And then their response is
evaluated in the simulation and conditions change. And they can see what the
results of their actions are. So part of what we’re
interested in doing is not only replacing the
live animal laboratories with non-live animal equivalents
or potentially things that are better, but we were
interested in how well we are doing, so some way of
assessing the students. So there’s two parts of that. I’m going to talk
about the first part. And then Julie is
going to go talk about the clinical
assessment that occurs in their subsequent
junior surgery live animal lab that they do the
following semester. But for in terms of assessment
for just the simulation course itself, we did a
self-efficacy study before and after the course. And we asked them a
variety of questions about can I do this skill or
can I not do this at this time. And we also give
them a written quiz. So prior to taking
the course, prior to having the
simulation instituted, the scale ran from 0 to 10, 0,
I can’t do it at this time to, 10, I can. Before, they scored an
average of a 3 on there. And then after they
took the course, again, taking the same self-efficacy
study, they scored an 8.6. And similar results were
obtained with the written quiz. It was a written quiz
of performing anesthesia in a patient. And the pre-scores
were just over 15 and the post scores were
essentially double at over 30. So just based upon the student’s
own self-assessment, which admittedly is not a tremendously
valid way of assessing their efficacy, we show
some improvement in that. So the next part
of this, Julie will talk about what we’ve
done to actually assess using GoPro cameras to assess
their anesthetic clinical skills in subsequent
live animal laboratories. So, Julie. JULIE NOYES: Thank
you, Dr. Keegan. So, as Dr. Keegan
mentioned, we wanted to make sure that the clinical
skills they were developing in the simulation lab
were also transferring to when they saw live patients. So we decided to use
GoPro cameras to assess their clinical skills. And the way that
we did this was we had them wear them in junior
surgery, which is essentially their first live animal
lab after they would have done the simulation lab. And, really, there
are many more benefits to the GoPros in the
classroom than just assessing the students for a study. We can actually see everything
from the student’s perspective. So we know that we’re
all on the same page. We also allow them to
look at their videos so they can self-assess
using the same rubric that we use to assess them
as well and provide feedback. And one additional benefit
that is really great is that we can
evaluate our program. So we can determine
do we actually have the right resources,
do we have enough staff, and should we make any
changes to this lab. And this is just an image
from a student’s perspective of putting in an IV
catheter in a dog. So to assess the students,
we have the data collection method, which was the GoPros. But, now, we needed
the instrument to be able to assess
their performance. And we created a rubric with
the help of many people, so it was a team effort. We had Dr. Olusola Adesope
from the College of Education, who’s an expert in
multimedia and education. We had Dr. Bonnie Campbell, who
is a clinical surgeon, who’s been involved in junior
surgery for many years and also developed a rubric
for the surgical side. And then Dr. Susan
Matthew also helped us. She has a PhD in veterinary
medical education. So what we ended up with is
this performance criteria. And this applies to
really five areas, such as putting
in an IV catheter, intubating, monitoring,
moving the patient, and also there’s an area
for professionalism. Because as you saw
with that video, we also are able to hear
what the students are saying. So we can assess whether their
communication skills are good or not. So this is a quick video
that demonstrates a student with a GoPro camera on. And she’s going to be
putting in an IV catheter. And you can see from
her perspective, she can get distracted, things
are going on around her. And then when we
want to assess, we can zoom in and really
look at the situation. Is her thumb actually
in the right position next to the vein? Is she holding the
catheter correctly? When she gets a flash does
she advance appropriately? So, currently, we are
in data collection. Literally, there
are nine students at this moment in the surgical
lab with GoPros on their heads. And we have done
about 100 students. So we have 100 videos that
we’ve been going through. And eventually when we
get all of these compiled, we’ll have external
reviewers using that rubric to assess the students. And that’s where
we are right now. And we want to thank, of course,
our technicians, our students, and also the teaching academy
who provided us funding to be able to do this project. Thank you. PHIL MIXTER: Any questions? Can you use the
microphone, Brian? BRIAN COLLINS: Very
nice presentation. I guess I’m just curious with
the GoPro type of assessment, would this at all be
useful in the application in the new medical school
that is being set up, say in monitoring interviews
or clinical interviews with patients? JULIE NOYES: Yeah. Actually on the human side,
in the human medical field, they’ve been using GoPros
and wearable recording devices for a while. And they use them
mostly for instruction so that professors can be doing
surgery deep in a body cavity somewhere that the students
wouldn’t necessarily be able to see, and then using
the GoPro the students can watch that afterwards. Less often, they’ve been using
the GoPros for assessment. So that’s a little bit of a new
field for us and also for them. PHIL MIXTER: I wonder about
the hybrid simulation. Do students find that it’s
a pretty authentic way to start their training process? There’s no sort of
remorse that there isn’t a live animal involved
or a sense that this doesn’t really count? They buy into the
simulation pretty well? ROBERT KEEGAN: We were and
still are concerned about that. And we have three
rules, two main rules, when they come in the sim room. And one rule is that the sim
room is just like Las Vegas, we’ll tell them. And what we mean by that,
there’s no slot machines or anything, but
what we mean by that is whatever happens in this
room stays in this room. So we keep everything
to ourselves. And we don’t talk
about it afterwards. And that’s kind
of a safety thing to give them an opportunity
to explore different things. But the other part is
that the students, when they come into the
room, we expect them to suspend their disbelief
about that this is all fake and it doesn’t matter and
that’s key to doing simulations. So it’s funny to watch them go
through sequential simulations. The first time there’s much
giggling and silliness. And they’re kind of
getting used to it. And after the second and third
time, they’re really into it and they’re concerned
for the patient. And they’re worried
about choices that they’ve made because they
can see the results immediately thereafter. So I think we’ve been
pleasantly surprised that most of the students
are able to get beyond that. And many of the students
in their comments after going through a
simulation, they’ll say I can’t imagine having
to do a live animal laboratory without having
this experience first. PHIL MIXTER: Right. You want to make those
errors in simulation– ROBERT KEEGAN: Absolutely. PHIL MIXTER: –before
a client, animal’s life is on the line or a
patient in human medicine? ROBERT KEEGAN: Yes, absolutely. PHIL MIXTER: I was
also interested a little bit about your survey. Did you do any surveys
before you switched? That self-efficacy
data is interesting. But I wonder if it’s
different with the simulation lab over a live animal. ROBERT KEEGAN: No. We did not do a survey of just
live animal students, so, yeah, that would be
interesting to know. PHIL MIXTER: I don’t know what
the control would be there. I guess that’s what
I was getting at. ROBERT KEEGAN: Yeah. PHIL MIXTER: All right. Any questions from
across the state? All right. Hearing none, seeing
none, we’ll move on to our next
presenter, Brian Collins. We’re a little
ahead of schedule, so we’re doing just great. [SIDE CONVERSATION] SPEAKER 1: No, I’m sorry, Brian. So you’d have to
go to that folder. [SIDE CONVERSATION] SPEAKER 1: Is that something
you emailed to Brian? BRIAN COLLINS: Yes,
a couple days ago. SPEAKER 1: Do you have
it on a thumb drive there in your pocket? BRIAN COLLINS: Actually, no,
I have it on the computer. SPEAKER 2: Actually, I do. SPEAKER 1: OK. Look at that. The joy of technology
is redundancy. That’s right. BRIAN COLLINS: All right. Thank you very much. All right. Yeah, so I’m Brian Collins. I’m an assistant professor. I’ve been here for
two years at WSU in the Department of Physics
and Astronomy and also as you mentioned in the Material
Science and Engineering Program. So I’m going to talk about
this online text discussion platform known as
Perusall and how we’ve been using it in the class
that I have been developing for this semester. In fact, we’re
using it right now. So just a quick
background of the course that I teach or I am
teaching, literally, for the first time this
semester is Physics 101. It’s an algebra based
physics course, four credits, three lectures a
week, two hour lab, about 300 students
in two sections. There’s two of us
teaching, Fred Gittes is the other faculty in
the department teaching it. We basically have one
full TA, equivalent of one full TA per section. So we don’t have
enough manpower really to aid in in-class interaction
on a regular basis. These TAs are really
just for grading exams. It is seen as a very difficult
course for the students, a lot of pre-meds, pre-vets. Often this course is
required for their major. And so requiring a lot of
analytical quantitative information and
logical deduction. So it’s something that
a lot of these students haven’t seen before. Some of the things that
we wanted to do though is to have the students
get a better prep for class basically allowing us to
spend more time in class, in the lecture, doing a
little more active learning. So there are a number of
active learning methods known as, for example,
think-pair-share where they actually interact with
each other to help teach aspects that
they are having difficulty understanding. That takes a lot of
extra time in class and so reduce the amount
of time that we have to really just lecture to them. And so what we want
to be able to do is focus more on the
aspects that the students are having difficulty with. And, for that, we
need more feedback in terms of what the
students are understanding as they are going
through the material, and what they’re
not understanding, and what we might need to
emphasize in a lecture. So those two needs we feel are
met with this text discussion platform known as Perusall. It’s based on a
social media platform to hold discussions over a text. Essentially, the students can
login with Facebook, Twitter, or just make a personal
account on that site. Actually, it started at
Harvard University, professor known as called Eric Mazur. And, essentially,
what they do is they have threads where
they highlight the text. They pose a question
or a comment. People can reply to that
or answer the question. There’s buttons and
so forth to indicate that, oh, I had this
question also or, hey, you answered my question. Basically, it’s very similar
to like a Facebook discussion. You actually see
if they’ve logged in with Twitter or Facebook. You see their icon that
you would see in Facebook. The login also
allows the algorithm. And since there are
hundreds of students, they can’t all discuss at once. So it allows them to cluster the
students with friends or people that they’re connected
with so that they can discuss with people they know. It also importantly includes
an automatic assessment and grading of the comments. So this is, I believe,
really important for a high participation rate. The students essentially need
to comment throughout the text and show that they are
thinking about the text and trying to understand
it, trying to assess what they are reading. And so, for example, in
my case, these assignments are every day
before every class. And they represent 10%
of the final grade. The nice thing about
this is it’s free. And, in fact, we are using an
open source textbook College Physics from Open Stax. And so the entire process
is carried out on servers essentially on Harvard’s campus,
but it is a separate company at this point. They’re not-for-profit. And because we’re using
this open source textbook, it is completely free to
us and to the students. You can use
proprietary textbooks. It depends on the publisher in
terms of what those fees are. Typically, they’re lighter
than the typical textbook because they have access
only through this web app. You actually have the choice to
allow them to download the PDF or not onto their own
personal computers. And we actually have a pretty
high participation rate. The big question
we had when this was demonstrated
to us at Harvard was, well, these
Harvard students. They’re highly motivated. What if you have a
student population that is not quite as motivated? This is just a quick– this
data is from one of the chapter readings that we had. Essentially, a one
through four Perusall score that the
computer automatically scores for each individual. We have a more than
80% participation rate. And basically from the higher
scores, two to four, about 2/3 are doing a very good job
and really posting comments and discussing vigorously
with each other these aspects that they
are trying to understand. And, essentially, we score it
basically out of three points. So then we can actually– it’s
really just participation. And we can also assess– in
fact, I’m not showing this, but they have this
metadata in terms of, for example, when they are
posting these comments. And you can see
essentially it’s the night before they are sitting
down and doing the reading, discussing with each other. But it also happens
after that period and can be asynchronous,
as was mentioned earlier. So this is an example. It’s very easy to
create assignments. You simply upload a PDF, any
PDF that you have access to. In my case, it automatically
read the table of contents and I can just highlight certain
sections and click on the date that I want it due, the
time I want it to be due, and that’s it. It’s created. This is what the students see. So this is an example of a
page that’s just in a browser that you read. And most of the text here
is highlighted at this point because this is kind of
an all students view. So, literally, 300
students, at some point, somebody is going highlight
every single thing. But I can click on
a specific thread and it’ll highlight where
they were highlighting and the discussion you can
see on the right side there. Somebody posing a question. You can click on
the question mark saying I had that question too. Or, somebody answering
the question, people can click on the
check mark saying, hey, that made sense to me,
that helped me out. Again, these are
everybody’s comments. What the students see
though are they’re clustered in certain groups. And you can set that as an
instructor how large of a group that you want. I think at this point
it’s like 20 students see each other’s comments at a time. It’s also great for
Just-in-Time Teaching. This is a method that is
used for extra feedback loop to maximize the
quality of class time. It’s been used for, I
guess, a few decades now. It usually involves web
based quizzes, which are due just before class. You ask them a question,
the A, B, C, D answer and you see how many
got it right or wrong, and that tells you how to
assess how well they understand that particular thing. We do this in this
method where we have it due one hour before class,
this discussion, basically. And the computer
automatically compiles what they call a
confusion report that uses kind of clustering
algorithms to figure out where people are having the
most misunderstandings or questions about certain
topics within the reading, highlights them in
a report for you. So the hour before class, I
look at this confusion report and it shows me all
the comments that are represented in that cluster. And I can adjust, therefore,
my lecture material that I’m about to talk
about to target specifically those aspects that people are
having the most confusion. I can actually read a question. Often times, people
will try to answer it. And they maybe even
answer it incorrectly because of a misconception. And so I can actually
bring that up and target and try to help
people get through some of those difficulties. It also helps to keep students
invested in attending class. Because, essentially,
during the class, I usually mention a particular
concept that I’m explaining and say, hey, a lot of
people had a question about this on Perusall. Or, and times, I
actually even display direct quotations from
the students and say they have this question. And I just answer it
right in front of them. So they actually get to see
their own question posed on the board anonymously,
but that way they feel invested in the system. And they come to class
to try to have some of these questions answered. Typically, the way
I do it is I do not interact with them
on Perusall at all. I do not answer
anybody’s questions. I let them answer
their own questions or discuss it
amongst themselves. Oh, this is an example
of the confusion report. There are certain topics and
you can see certain quotes from the students on the side
and which page it was from. And then I can just highlight
those, copy and paste them into my slides, or whatever. And so the question
becomes how does– so, essentially, we
feel like we have these students reading the
night before they come to class. In previous semesters,
it has been clear that some students don’t
even bother to buy the text. The textbooks in these
classes are typically anywhere from $180 to $250. So it’s very expensive. And if students can get away
with not reading the text, then they might not even
buy it and, therefore, not even read it. So we feel like at least
they are reading through it in a separate situation. They’re assessing the
material just before class or seeing it once and then
seeing again in lecture. We are developing several
assessment metrics right now. This, again, is the first
semester we’re doing this. We do have standardized tests
in physics called the– like, for example, forced
concept inventory that is a before and after test
to calculate learning gains. And we are in the
process of doing that. But a quick initial
metric here is just a correlation of the Perusall
grades with the first exam score in the class
earlier in the semester. We do seem to have somewhat of
a correlation with the Perusall scores. So the people essentially
being really on top of things and reading before
they come to class seem to be doing slightly
better in the exams. And that’s it. Yeah. SPEAKER 2: So I’m
really interested in how you could use the confusion
report to fold back into the editing
of the textbooks since this is an open
textbook and editable by you. Have you ever thought to
use those confusion reports to refine the text to improve
it so that the confusion doesn’t continue? BRIAN COLLINS: Sure. Actually, I have
not thought of that. That’s a really good point. One thing though that I find is
that the places in the textbook that are not very
good actually tend to be the best places where
the discussion happens, where students
really get together, and they start talking about
this and trying to hash it out. And, in some ways,
that’s actually better, where they’re actually thinking
about it amongst each other, and figuring it out rather
than just reading and saying, oh, that makes sense
and then moving on. But I agree. That is one way to
do it because these are open textbooks that welcome
comments and ways to improve it. SPEAKER 2: OK. Also, I’ve heard
that Perusall might have been sold by Eric Mazur. Have you head about that? BRIAN COLLINS: Well, it’s
a separate company now. I believe he is co-CEO
or something like this. Yeah. It is its own company. Actually, I am in contact
with Brian Lukoff, who is kind of the main
CEO now of the company, because there are
some issues that we’ve been working on trying
to address plagiarism. And we have seen some
of that this semester. And so adding in some
of those automatic filters to look for some
of that, for example. SPEAKER 2: But it’s
still free to use? BRIAN COLLINS: Yes. Yes. It’s still free. SPEAKER 2: Great, thanks. PHIL MIXTER: Other questions? I’ll add that we’re
using Perusall in a different sort of way. But we do it for an
asynchronous journal club. So any PDF, you could start
with a research paper, assign it to the class or
assign it to an interest group. And then it allows that
discussion to occur on the PDF. You highlight a text. And then you get
that same interaction with peer-to-peer learning,
which I talked a little bit about this morning. And I think that’s
really working in a lot of different
contexts, not just a large class like yours
with an open source textbook. So anytime you have
a primary resource that can be converted
to a PDF, you can use Perusall to
rally around it and get the social interaction. BRIAN COLLINS: Yeah. Indeed, yeah. I have created a separate
journal club class, you might call it,
for my research group. We haven’t really gotten
started with that, but I started uploading
journal articles that I think are kind of important for the
group to at least be aware of and maybe start discussing. So I agree that’s a big
opportunity there as well. The question really is if
this is going to stay free. Pearson or somebody
might just decide we’re going to buy this thing. So that’s, I think,
a big question here. PHIL MIXTER: I was going to say
with journal clubs for faculty development, I never run
the confusion report. That’s just what
I stay away from. BRIAN COLLINS: Yeah. Yeah, I don’t think
you would need that. [LAUGHTER] PHIL MIXTER: Any
other questions? All right. Hearing none. We’ll– BRIAN COLLINS: Oh, it
looks like somebody was raising their hand over there. LORI: Lori in Spokane. How will you access Perusall? How would we gain
access to that? Because I can see that
being used for a few things. BRIAN COLLINS: Sure. I think you just
go to the website and you say you would like
to sign up as an instructor. LORI: So it’s Perusall.com? BRIAN COLLINS: Yep. Perusall.com. LORI: OK. Thank you. BRIAN COLLINS: Yep. PHIL MIXTER: And the
instructor’s side, the back side, has some things
you might– there’s a learning curve with any software. But I think it’s
pretty intuitive and the students have
really gravitated to it in my experience as well. BRIAN COLLINS: Yeah. Yeah. And the grading aspect for
the class is very simple. You just download
the CVS file and you can incorporate that
in any way you’d like with your class grade. And, in fact, you can adjust
all of the assessments to your liking, how
many annotations do you want them to be actually
making for an assignment, do what’s the point spread of
everything, things like that. PHIL MIXTER: Right. And I think Perusall uses
that social algorithm to sift through significant
comments and score them. BRIAN COLLINS: Yes. PHIL MIXTER: I think
you mentioned that. SPEAKER 2: By the way, that can
be connected to the Blackboard grading tool also? BRIAN COLLINS: Yes,
they have that. I haven’t been using that
because the way I read it, it sounded like you couldn’t
have them login with Facebook if they did that. They’d have to login
through Blackboard. And so I just wanted to
try it with the ability. And most people are– you can
see their little Facebook icons and things like that. So it seems like people are
actually doing it that way. But that is another
thing that you could do is you could actually have
all the grades piped directly to Blackboard without
you doing anything. PHIL MIXTER: All right. So we’ll go ahead and move
on, clicking right along to our last presenter,
Tom Salsbury. So you can grab
that mic from Brian. TOM SALSBURY: All right. All righty. So thank you. Thanks for inviting
me here today. I’m going to talk about a course
that I teach in the Master’s of Teaching Program. This is in the
College of Education. It’s a course for elementary
and secondary future teachers so teachers in training. And it’s a course
that’s specifically designed for teaching
English language learners in content classrooms. The students are divided
between Pullman and Spokane. And this is a course I teach
once a year through AMS. Normally, our courses
are face-to-face. So I have that added challenge
of working with future teachers and how do we teach
kids face-to-face, but we’re doing it through
an AMS environment. So it can be quite
challenging to get our students to connect with
each other within the class. It can be a little
bit challenging to help them see how to actually
apply these methods when we’re doing it through
the AMS environment. And what happens
is students– if we have a big group in Pullman and
say a small group in Spokane, which is the way
it is currently, our Pullman students, because
they’re such a big group, they have a tendency to
overwhelm a small group in Spokane. So this students in Spokane
might want to have a question. And they’re kind of being
overwhelmed by the Pullman students. A lot of times there’s– we’re
in the campfire setting with a center podium and
students sitting around it, which is very intimate
and really a great set up for our Pullman students. But for our Spokane’s
students, sometimes they feel a little bit overwhelmed. So my challenge is to try and
connect with the students. I want to pull the Spokane
students into the class, so they feel that
they can really engage with the activities
that we’re doing. Because we’re working
through the AMS environment, everything has to be electronic. It wouldn’t be like
a face-to-face class where I can bring in
my cart of materials. We need to improvise
and still feel as though the students in the
class, our teacher candidates, are getting a good experience. So I really basically
allow them– I’m trying to model
good pedagogy. And then I want my students to
be able to practice and apply what they’re learning. So they’re going to have to
use this technology as well. So, in a nutshell, we pretty
much pull out all the stops. We’re going to use
all of our technology that’s available to us in
order to model a good pedagogy, reflect on that, and really
connect with each other. So that’s what I want
to talk about first is how do I create that
classroom environment, which any good teacher would want to
create where your students feel connected with each other and
feel connected with themselves through these two campuses. So, of course, we
use Blackboard Learn. I post all of our materials
in the course beforehand. We use our announcements. I make sure that
everyone knows what’s going to happen
because I don’t have that face-to-face
environment with my students to make sure everyone’s on page. I communicate through email. We do use our cell phones. And, in fact, I encourage
it because there’s so many opportunities
to communicate with each other in class. So we have those ready to go. As I already mentioned, we
have our campfire set up, which is– I just think it’s
super cool over in Terrell 106. We sit around this space. We’ve got our 360 degree camera. And whoever’s speaking
the camera shines on them. So we’re able to really get
a much more intimate kind of environment. But then, at the same
time, that technology can be a little
bit overwhelming, as I already mentioned. And so I’m trying
to learn how to use the sound better to silence
or mute when I need to. So that way groups
can work on campus without feeling overwhelmed
by the other campus because of the noise. So we use that a lot. And I also take down
the PowerPoints. So that I don’t feel so
connected to that presentation and I can rather engage
with the students, pull down the PowerPoint,
and we can actually see each other, which
I think is really important for our students
who are on the other campus. In the class itself, I work hard
to model engaging activities because these are after all
future elementary secondary teachers. And so I do of a variety
of different activities. And all of them using
lots of technology. So, of course, I’ll
bring in my video clips. They’re either on DVD or online. So we can see some
classroom models and then reflect on what
we’re seeing in our videos Because this is a course
that is specifically for teaching English
language learners, it’s important for
students to understand what different
levels of language proficiency or English language
proficiency sound like. So I need to bring
those samples in. We don’t have
access to the class. So we’re actually
listening to those samples, noticing various characteristics
of that language, and then discussing that. We do what we call
jigsaw readings. We’ll have students working
in their home groups, organizing readings,
going off into what we call expert groups to read
a particular reading to really know it well, and then go
back to their home groups. So this is, again,
a strategy that we use in our elementary
secondary classrooms. And so we’re trying
to model it here. For some of the
more ambitious days, we might even try and
communicate across campus. So we’ll have groups
working together, two students in Pullman
and one student in Spokane. And they’ll be working
with their phones to try and communicate
with each other. We have a particular type
of social skills development tool that we can use with
our elementary secondary kids that we try to model then in
our classes with the candidates. And this is called the
social skills t-chart. So, normally, in a classroom,
we would have poster paper with, say, respect. And so what does
respect look like? What does respect sound
like in a t-chart? And then the students
can decide, well, this is what it looks like
when we respect each other. And this is what it sounds like. This is what we say when
we respect each other. Well, we can do
this– although, we’re in two different campuses,
I can do this in Word. And we can develop our
own social skills t-chart. Another typical activity in a
elementary secondary classroom would be a poster walk. So the students build posters. And then they can
move around and talk to each other about
the different things that they developed for
whatever type of content that we might be working on. But I can do this in Bb Learn. And I can also use
the document camera. So students can take pictures
of what they’ve developed, send it to Bb
Learn, and, boom, we can do a poster walk
in that way as well. There’s sorting and
categorizing activities that we would do at a normal
elementary secondary classroom with columns and cards
and we would sort of move these around. Well, I can do the same
thing in PowerPoint. So I experiment with
that, so the teachers know what they can do in
a regular classroom, but we can model it
through the technology. There’s a type of
activity called a fishbowl, which
in the campfire set up works really well. Basically, you have a
group who have a discussion and then the rest
of the class are listening into this discussion. And then giving their
feedback in the end. And so in the campfire
set up through AMS, that works out really nicely. We can model that through AMS. We did an exercise with
demographics research basically so that our teacher
candidates will understand the school demographics of where
they’ll be doing their student teaching. So we can do that in groups
and we do a lot of online work oftentimes across campus. And then there’s the
times where we split off into our on site groups. We can do work around
consensus formation, what we call ear-to-ear
reading, think-pair-share, which was mentioned earlier. So we can do all
of these activities even though we’re on
two different campuses. That, hopefully, our
teacher candidates are able to see
modeled and then they can use when they go and
do their practicums, which all of them are doing at the
time of this particular class. And about halfway
through the course, we shift from me doing most of
the presenting and the students participating to the
students actually taking charge of the practicing
and the applying. So they’ll then
choose a strategy, use the technology
develop the class, and then take us through. So, for example,
in this semester alone, we had one group
do a story reenactment. They used Word and Bb
Learn and PowerPoint. They had students
work in small groups. They read a story called
The Story of Samara. And then they re-enacted
that story in the class. And then we got to see
them do their story re-enactment on both campuses. We can do another strategy
called the interactive read aloud, which is similar in
some ways to what you were just describing, where you’re able
to have a reading, a text, and then you have small groups
who are discussing that text and asking questions. And this group did it
in a jigsaw reading. They had expert groups
and home groups. And then they developed a
Kahoot to test comprehension. So they used all that
technology in their class. We have another strategy for
reading really hard texts. So rather than
watering down texts, we say, well, what
do we do when we’re working with texts that
are beyond a student’s level of reading ability. So we have some strategies
to help with that. And this one’s called Gist. And then, finally,
we had groups who were exploring another strategy
around graphic organizers. We actually did it yesterday
talking about Title IX. And so we did some
readings on Title IX and then developed
graphic organizers to help us process new
language and new concepts. And all of these are strategies
to help language learners. So that is how we use
technology in this class. PHIL MIXTER: Questions? SPEAKER 2: So, Tom, I realize
you had a limited amount of time to talk about this. But is there a way that
we could get access to these in more detail? TOM SALSBURY: Oh, the
different strategies? SPEAKER 2: Yeah, these
different strategies. For example– TOM SALSBURY: Yeah, absolutely. SPEAKER 2: Yeah, I’d
like to learn more about each individual
one in more detail. TOM SALSBURY: Oh, absolutely. SPEAKER 2: Just, for
example, the jigsaw reading, what does that look
like in Blackboard? TOM SALSBURY: Sure. Well, so a jigsaw
reading, the basic idea is to help expedite
reading and also to go a little bit
deeper so that way you’re not overwhelming your kids. So what we did in
this particular case– because I’m working
with adults, I did a lesson on
language programs in the state of Washington. So we did it through
a jigsaw reading. And students were in groups. They first started out as
we call it a school group. So their task was to
choose a language program for their particular school. So they sat down. And they had seven different
programs to choose from. Everyone grabbed a program. That was their home group
or their school group. And then they went off
to their expert groups. And everybody in
that expert group was reading about
the same program. So you’d have groups of three. And three would read
about one program, three would read
about another program. And they would finish
10, 15 minutes later. And then they go back
to their school group. And each had then
a different program that they were going to share
as if we were a school board and we had to decide
on a school program. So I’m going to tell you
about the bilingual program. And I’m going to tell you about
the sheltered English program. And I’m going to tell you
about the newcomer program. So they each shared
their programs. And then as a
school had to decide based on the
demographics that they knew from a previous
project what program they were going to select. So that’s how the jigsaw
worked is basically everyone has a different
piece of information to bring to the table. So it’s not just
everyone talking about what we already
know, but we actually have a reason to communicate. And so that’s
helpful for reading. It’s helpful for oral language
skills and social skills as well. So that would be an
example of a jigsaw. SPEAKER 2: OK. So each three person group
would make posts in Blackboard as these communications? TOM SALSBURY: Well,
this was all oral. So it was synchronous. Yeah. And so what we did then was
we had our Pullman groups and we had Spokane groups. And then the Spokane
was one school district because it’s a small group. Pullman was a– we
had more students, so we had more schools. So it was actually synchronous
and we just did it right there in class. SPEAKER 2: OK. Thank you. TOM SALSBURY: Yeah. Yeah, sure. Thanks. BRIAN COLLINS: Thanks. Just that example
brought up a question. So if I understand it right,
you broke up from your schools, and then you made expert groups
to discuss an individual plan? TOM SALSBURY: Program. BRIAN COLLINS: Program, yeah. TOM SALSBURY: Yeah, an
individual language program. BRIAN COLLINS: Did that break up
pose issues for, say, the Spokane students in joining an expert group? TOM SALSBURY: Yeah,
that’s a great question. So what we did is
then the expert groups were communicating
with Spokane. We were texting. Perusall would have
actually worked very well, in this case, because I
could have actually posted that document and
they could have been highlighting some things
and typing in their questions. So that would have
been a nice addition. But, yeah, so we would be
talking on phones, right? They’d pull out their phones. Two folks in Pullman, one
person in Spokane, and then they would be answering
each other’s questions that they had about
that reading, strengths, weaknesses of the
program, things like that. Yeah, so that’s how that worked. Yeah. Thanks. PHIL MIXTER: Tom,
my question would be in a situation where,
say, a student in Pullman is having a conversation
with a student in Spokane, my challenge is always that
those interactions happen and they’re gone. They’re ethereal. And I wonder is there
any component that’s more reflective where you try
and use an LMS like Blackboard to capture it? So that it’s more visible
to the other groups. There’s that added value
that you can do meta work. TOM SALSBURY: Yeah,
great question. So one of our groups who did
the interactive story retell, we decided– I worked
with the groups as they’re preparing
their class. We decided to do
outcome statements in Blackboard in a discussion. So it created a forum. The question was would
you be able to use this particular strategy
in your content area because our students come from
all different content areas. So this was a group of
elementary teachers who are also working with
physics and math and history and all of our
different content areas. So it was a really
nice way for students then to jump into
Blackboard and say, oh, yeah, I could use
this for the lesson that I’m teaching on American
history, blah, blah, blah. And then we had a record
of all of those discussions and that was really helpful,
both for the students doing it and then for
everyone to come see how people were applying it. Yeah. Yeah. Thanks. Good question. PHIL MIXTER: Other questions
from other campuses? All right. Somehow we managed to
almost get back on time. So I’ll hand the
microphone to Rebecca. SPEAKER 3: Before we finish this
session, can I show a website? Can I show content
on the computer? We talked about several
different technology tools. Thank you very much, Tom. TOM SALSBURY: Yeah,
you’re welcome. SPEAKER 3: And I learned about
one recently called Pear Deck. Is anybody familiar
with Pear Deck? So the demo here that they’ve
got on their website is more– can you go to Pear Deck,
P-E-A-R-D-E-C-K dot com? This seems to be geared
more towards kids, but I think could
be used really well in a face-to-face classroom. So, yeah, would you
just play that demo? So I just thought I’d take
a minute to share this. Yeah. I thought there
was just a video. Yeah. VIDEO: Pear Deck will change
the way you present slide decks in a live classroom setting. When you hit start
presenting in Pear Deck, you’re creating a live
session for participants to join on their own computer,
tablet, or smartphone. As the instructor, you control
the flow of the presentation from your computer or tablet. On their devices, participants
can respond to your preplanned or impromptu questions
throughout the presentation with a number of unique
interaction types. Those responses can then
be shared anonymously and in real-time on
your classroom projector or interactive whiteboard. From your device, you can
isolate individual answers, toggle responses, and even
do cool things like overlay all of the shared. Let’s walk through a
session to find out how. [NO AUDIO] SPEAKER 3: So it goes along
with Kahoot and Perusall. There’s just so many
tools out there. And, to be perfectly
honest, I haven’t looked at what the
cost of this is yet. And I’m not supposed
to present technologies until we’ve actually vetted
them and looked through them. But this seems to me
like across the system a group of people who might
be interested in looking at something like this,
using something like this, and seems like it would work in
those video conference courses. It is intended to
be synchronous. But you wouldn’t all have
to be in the same room and, yet, providing feedback,
engaging in the learning, built right into your
PowerPoint presentation. So I just thought
it was pretty cool. I thought this was an
opportunity to demo it. Well, for Chris to demo it. Thanks, Chris. PHIL MIXTER: It seems to
solve a number of problems in terms of sharing
synchronously from multiple devices. And then as an instructor that
idea that you can pull things out to highlight
and emphasis themes, that’s really [? attractive ?]. SPEAKER 3: And, perhaps,
keeping your students who have their computers in
the classroom on task and not Facebooking
or whatever it is they do in this– instant
messaging or snagging it or whatever it is they do. All right. Other questions? OK. Well, thank you
very much, Brian and PHIL MIXTER: Tom. SPEAKER 3: Phil and Tom, I know. PHIL MIXTER: Rob
Keegan and Julia. SPEAKER 3: They’ve left. OK. All right. Yeah, thank you all very much. And our last session
is 2:30 to 3:30 so everybody gets
a little break. And then we’ll be talking about
different uses of Blackboard, which we’ve heard about
through the day as well. So thank you.

Danny Hutson

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